Distribution, Compositional Pattern and Potential to human exposure of PAHs in Water, Amassoma axis, Nun River, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Open access


This study was carried out to investigate the distribution and contents of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from Amassoma axis of the Nun River, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The PAH contaminations in the river water samples was performed using GC-MS method. The results were similar for all of the three sampling stations. Six LMW PAHs: naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene and five HMW PAHs: fluoranthene, pyrene benzo (a)anthracene, chrysene and benzo(a)pyrene were found. The ΣPAH concentration ranged from 0.111mg/L to 0.26mg/L. In this study, PAH fingerprint ratios for determining both petrogenic and pyrogenic (pyrolytic) PAH accumulation in the environment and Toxic equivalency factor (TEF) used to estimate relative toxicity of a PAH compared to that of BaP was employed. The Ph/An ratio for water samples were 0.00, 0.33 and 0.00 in three stations, while associated figures for Fl/Py ratio values were 0.67, 0.83 and 0.50 respectively. Pearson correlation matrice analysis reveals a positive correlation between the PAHs; this could indicate a common source for some of the PAHs, however, some were negatively correlated with each other. This behavior could indicate non-point source. A comparative analysis of PAHs concentrations in the water samples with WHO standards revealed that the results obtained in this study were within the permissible levels, however, carcinogen PAHs present in the water of the Amassoma axis, Nun River may pose a threats to human health.

Magi, E., Bianco, R., Ianni, C., and Di Carro, M., (2002). Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the sediments of the Adriatic Sea. Environ. Pollut. 119 (1), 91–98.

Chen, S.J., Luo, X.J., Mai, B.X., Sheng, G.Y., Fu, J.M., and Zeng, E.Y., (2006). Distribution and mass inventories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the pearl river estuary and the Northern South China Sea. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40 (3), 709–714.

Yunker, M.B., Macdonald, R.W., Vingarzan, R., Mitchell, R.H., Goyette, D., and Sylvestre, S., (2002). PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition. Org. Geochem. 33 (4), 489–515.

Kafilzadeh, F. (2015). Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments of the Soltan Abad River, Iran. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 41, 227–231.

Abdel-Shafy, H. I. and Mansour, M S.M. (2016). A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum. 25, 107–123.

Disdier, B., Arfi, C., Pastor, J., Pauli, A.M., and Portugal, H.(1999). Analysis by GC-MS of monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in thermolysed waste products. Analusis, 27, 235-241.

Kaminski, N.E. Faubert Kaplan, B.L. and Holsapple, M.P.( 2008). 7th ed., in: Curtis D. Klaassen (Ed.), Casarett and Doull’s Toxicology, the basic science of poisons, 526, Mc-Graw Hill, Inc.

Aderinola, O. J., Mekuleyi, G.O. and Whenu, O. O. ( 2018). Total and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons in Water, Sediment, Fin and Shellfishes from Badagry Creek and Ologe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 22 (5), 675–680.

APHA, (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st edition American Public Health Association. Washington DC, 1368p.

Chen, C.W., Chen, C.F., Dong, C.D.,and Tu, Y.T. (2012). Composition and source apportionment of PAHs in sediments at river mouths and channel in Kaohsiung Harbor, Taiwan. J. Environ. Monit., 14, 105–115.

Garcia-Falcon, M.S., Soto-Gonzalez, B., and Simal-Gandara, J.( 2006). Evolution of the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in burnt woodland soils. Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 759–763.

Sun, C., Zhang, J., Ma Q., Zhang, F., and Chen, Y. (2016). Risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from a mixed-use reservoir, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 22:2, 447-459, DOI10.1080/10807039.2015.1079775

Opuene, K. (2004). Water quality levels and impacts of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Taylor Creek Aquatic Ecosystem, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.Ph.D Thesis of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Luch, A. (2005). The carcinogenic effect of polycyclic hydrocarbons London, Imperial College Press.

Nwineewii, J.D. and Marcus, J.D. (2015). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) In surface water and their toxicological effects in some creeks of South East Rivers State (Niger Delta) Nigeria. J. Environ. Sci., Toxi. and Food Tech. (IOSR-JESTFT). 9(12) PP 27-30.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 2007). The national water quality inventory report to congress for the 2002 reporting cycle: A profile. Washington DC.: United States Environmental Protection Agency, 841-843.

Jiries, A., Hussain, H., and Lintelmann J. (2000). Determination of polycyclic caromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater, sediments, sludge and plants in Karak province, Jordon. Water Air Soil Poll. 121:217–228.

Li, J., Shang, X., Zhao, Z., Robert L. T., Dong, Q.and Huang, C. (2010 ). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water, sediment, soil, and plants of the Aojiang River waterway in Wenzhou, China. J Hazard Mater. 173(1-3): 75–81. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.08.050

Yang, Y., Woodward, L.A., Li Q.X., and Wang J. (2014). Concentrations, Source and Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. PLoS ONE 9(1): e86441. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086441

Nisbet, I. and LaGoy, P. (1992). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs), Regul. Toxicol. Pharm. 16: 290–300, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0273-2300(92)90009-x.

Tongo, I., Ogbeide, O. and Ezemonye, L. (2017). Human health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in smoked fish species from markets in Southern Nigeria. Toxicology Reports, 4: 55–61

Karyab, H., Yunesian, M., Nasseri, S., Mahvi, A. H., Ahmadkhaniha, R., Rastkari N., and Nabizadeh R. (2013). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in drinking water of Tehran, Iran. J. Environ. Health Sci. & Eng, 11:25, 1-7

WHO, (2011). Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. 4th edition. World Health Organization; whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241548151_eng.pdf

Qiu, Y.W., Zhang, G., Liu, G.Q., Guo, L.L., Li, X.D., and Wai, O. (2009). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the water column and sediment core of Deep Bay, South China. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 83 (1), 60–66.

Journal Information


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 141 141 47
PDF Downloads 87 87 26