Gender Differences in Kidney Transplantation – 10-Year Retrospective Study

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Background: Chronic kidney disease represents a world-wide health problem affecting approximately 195 million women around the world. Risk of development of chronic kidney disease is greater in women; therefore, the World Kidney Day 2018 was dedicated to kidney disease, treatment options, and its specifics in female patients.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 1,457 patients after kidney transplantation from all transplant centres in Slovakia over a period of ten years from 2005 – 2015.The parameters taken into account were cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), outcome of transplantation in a context of differences between the genders.

Results: During the ten-year period there were 557 transplanted women vs. 900 men. Among female recipient the dominant cause of ESRD was tubulointerstitial nephritis (males 22.3% vs. females 32.1%, p < 0.0001), other causes of ESRD where females were significantly more represented than men included polycystic kidney disease (males 11.6% vs. females 17.6%, p = 0.0013) and systemic lupus erythematosus (males 0.2% vs. females 2.3 %, p = 0.0001). There was no significant difference in 12-month, 5-year, and 10-year both graft and patient survival rates between men and women. Female recipients wait for kidney transplantation significantly longer in spite of comparable time spent on dialysis (males 32.9 months vs. females 39.4 months, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Despite comparable patient and graft survival rates in male and female recipients in our study there are other studies showing that gender as well as gender mismatch significantly influence the outcomes of transplantation.

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