Numerical and Analytical Investigation of Aluminium Bracket Strengthening

Open access


This paper focuses on an analytical and numerical investigation of aluminium brackets used to fasten light-weight curtain walls to building facilities. The authors propose a solution to increase the load capacity of aluminium brackets by means of additional cover plates (straps). This paper also includes a short survey of literature and material properties concerning the EN AW-6060 T6 aluminium alloy. This paper suggests an initiation of a comprehensive investigation on aluminium brackets.

1. Z. Al-Khatab, A. Bouchaïr, “Analysis of a bolted T-stub strengthened by backing-plates with regard to Eurocode 3”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 63: 1603-1615, 2007.

2. A. Ambroziak, “Application of elasto-viscoplastic Bodner-Partom constitutive equations in finite element analysis”, Computer Assisted Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, 55(3): 405-429, 2007.

3. A. Ambroziak, P. Kłosowski, Ł. Pyrzowski, “Elasto-viscoplastic properties of AA2017 aluminium alloy”, Task Quarterly, 15(1): 5-20, 2011.

4. A. Ambroziak, P. Kłosowski, “MSC.Marc/Mentat. Example of calculations (in Polish)”, Gdansk University of Technology Publishing House, Gdansk 2017.

5. A. Biegus, W. Seidel, “Experts opinion on strengthening of aluminium brackets” (in Polish), 1-9, 2016.

6. S. R. Bodner, Y. Partom, “Constitutive equations for elastic-viscoplastic strain-hardening materials”, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 42: 385-389, 1975.

7. DASt-Ri 010, Anwendung hochfester Schrauben im Stahlbau. Deutcher Ausschuss für Stahlbau, Juni 1976.

8. J. L. C. G. De Kanter, “Energy absorption of monolithic and fibre reinforcement aluminium cylinders” PhD thesis, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, 2006.

9. EN 1993-1-8 Eurocode 3 - Design of steel structures - Part 1-8: Design of joints, 2012.

10. EN 1999-1-1 Eurocode 9 - Design of aluminium structures - Part 1-1: General structures rules, 2011.

11. EN 755-2, Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Extruded rod/bar, tube and profiles. Mechanical properties, 2016.

12. W. Grogan, J. O. Surtees, “Experimental behaviour of end plate connections reinforced with bolted banking angles”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 50: 71-96, 1999.

13. Fisher web site:

14. B. Käfer, V. K. Bheemineni, H. Lammer, M. Kotnik, F. O. Riemelmoser, “Effects of position and cut-out length on the axial crushing behaviour of aluminium tubes: Experimental and simulation”, International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering, 7(11): 2157-2164, 2013.

15. L. Katula, L. Dunai, “Experimental study on standard and innovative bolted end-plate beam-to-beam joints under bending”, Steel and Composite Structures, 18(6): 1423-1450, 2015.

16. P. Kłosowski, A. Mleczek, “Identification of Bodner-Partom viscoplastic model parameters for some aluminium alloys at elevated temperature”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, doi:

17. J. Maljaars, F. Soetens, L. Katgerman, “Constitutive model for aluminum alloys exposed to fire conditions”, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 39A: 778-789, 2008.

18. J. Maljaars, F. Soetens, H. H. Snijder, “Local buckling of aluminium structures exposed to fire. Part 1: tests”, Thin-Walled Structures, 47: 1404-1417, 2009.

19. J. Maljaars, L. Twilt, F. Soetnes, “Flexural buckling of fire exposed aluminium columns”, Fire Safety Journal, 44: 711-717, 2009.

20. D. B. Moore, C. Gibbons, “The design of flush and extended end-plate connections with backing plates”, in Construction Steel Design: World developments, Edited by P. J. Dowling, J. E. Harding, R. Bjorhovde, E. Martinez-Romero, Elsevier Science Publisher LTD, England, 225-239, 1992.

21. D. B. Moore, P. A. C. Sims, “Preliminary investigation into the behaviour of extended end-plate steel connections with backing plates”, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, 6(2): 95-122, 1986.

22. A. Mróz, R. J. Mania, “The complex influence of aluminium aging on the dynamic response of the thin-walled AL-6060 alloy profile”, Thin-Walled Structures, 79: 147-153, 2014.

23. A. Mróz, “The viscoplastic effect in the heat-treated, thin-walled AL-6060 alloy profiles subjected to compressive axial impact”, Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, 18(1): 53-71, 2014.

24. R. S. Nair, P. C. Birkemoe, W. H. Munse, “High Strength Bolts Subject to Tension and Prying”, Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 100(2): 351-372, 1974.

25. PN-90/B-03200. Steel structures - Structural analysis and design (in Polish), 1990.

26. PN-EN 515. Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Wrought products. Temper designations, 1996.

27. PN-EN 573-3:2014. Aluminium and aluminium alloys. Chemical composition and form of wrought products. Chemical composition and form of product, 2014.

28. W. Ramberg, W. R. Osgood, “Description of stress-strain curves by three parameters”, NACA Technical Note No. 902, 1943.

29. Cz. K. Szymczak, M. Kujawa, “Local buckling of thin-walled channel member flange made of aluminum alloy”, AIP Conference Proceedings, 1822, 020014; doi:

30. User Documentation, Marc® (2016) Volume B: Element Library,

31. W. Więckowski, J. Adamus, “Friction and wear testing of titanium and aluminium alloys”, Obróbka Plastyczna Metali, 23(3): 169-178, 2013.

32. Y-Q. Zheng, Z. Zhang, “The fire performance and fire-resistance design of aluminium alloy I-beam”, Fire and Materials, 40: 141-157, 2016.

33. P. Zoetemeijer, “A design method for the tension side of statically loaded, bolted beam-to-column connections”, Heron 20(1), Delft University, Netherlands, 1974.

Archives of Civil Engineering

The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 0.251
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP): 0.521


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 248 248 57
PDF Downloads 250 250 50