Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) to permethrin in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Open access

Abstract

Background: Insects control using insecticides is used extensively and intensively in vector control programs in many countries including Malaysia. Because of this, mosquito species have been found to develop various levels of resistance towards these insecticides, leading to failure in vector control activities.

Objectives: We determined permethrin resistance status in laboratory susceptible, permethrin-selected, and field strains of Aedes albopictus.

Methods: The susceptibility status of laboratory susceptible strain, permethrin-selected strain, and four field strains of Aedes albopictus collected from Kuala Lumpur were determined using three standard laboratory tests, WHO larval bioassay, WHO adult mosquito bioassay, and microassay of mixed function oxidases (MFOs).

Results: The LC50 values of permethrin-selected strain and field strains obtained from the WHO larval bioassay were almost two times higher (0.38-0.44 mg/L) than the LC50 value of the laboratory strain (0.20 mg/L). In the WHO adult bioassay, the susceptibility of permethrin-exposed of both permethrin-selected strain, and field strains (LT50 = 19.39 to 20.65 min) were reduced for 1.31 to 1.72 times after been exposed to the synergist, piperonyl butoxide (PBO) prior to permethrin. Complete mortalities were also recorded in both permethrin-exposed and PBO + permethrin-exposed Ae. albopictus of all strains, twenty-four hours post-exposure. For the MFOs enzyme microassay, a significant difference (p <0.05) in the mean absorbance of elevated oxidase activity at 630 nm was observed between all strains of both the non-exposed and PBO-exposed Ae. albopictus. Strong and significant positive correlations were also observed between LT50 values of permethrin-exposed and PBO + permethrinexposed with oxidase level in Ae. albopictus tested (r = 0.943; p <0.05).

Conclusion: These results indicate the association of oxidase activity with permethrin resistance development in Ae. albopictus.

1. Russell PK, Gould DJ, Yuill TM, Nisalak A, Winter PE. Recovery of dengue-4 viruses from mosquito vectors and patients during an epidemic of dengue haemorrhagic fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1969; 18: 580-3.

2. Chan YC, Ho BC, Chan KL. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore city. 5. Observations in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever. Bull World Health Org. 1971; 44:651-8.

3. Jumali, Sunarto, Gubler DJ, Nalim S, Eram S, Saroso JS. Epidemic dengue haemorrhagic fever in rural Indonesia III. Entomological studies. Am J T Med Hyg. 1979; 28:717-24.

4. Sulaiman S, Omar B, Jefferey J, Busparani V. Evaluation of pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin against Aedes albopictus in the laboratory. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1991; 7:322-3.

5. Sam IC, AbuBakar S. Chikungunya virus infection. Medical J Malaysia. 2006; 61:264-9.

6. Noridah O, Paranthaman V, Nayar SK, Masliza M, Ranjit K, Norizah I, et al. Outbreak of chikungunya due to virus of Central / East African genotype in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2007; 62:323-8.

7. Leroy EM, Nkoghe D, Ollomo B, Nze-Nkogue C, Becquart P, Grard G, et al. Concurrent chikungunya and dengue virus infections during simultaneous outbreaks, Gabon, 2007. Emerging Infect Dis. 2009; 15: 591-3.

8. Brengues C, Hawkes NJ, Chandre F, McCarroll L, Duchon S, Guillet P, et al. Pyrethroid and DDT crossresistance in Aedes aegypti is correlated with novel mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Med Vet Entomol. 2003; 17:87-94.

9. Soderlund DM, Knipple DC. The molecular biology of knockdown resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2003; 33:563-77.

10. Pridgeon JW, Becnel JJ, Clark GG, Linthicum KJ. Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti. J Med Entomol. 2009; 46:580-7.

11. Wan-Norafikah O, Nazni WA, Lee HL, Zainol-Ariffin P, Sofian-Azirun M. Permethrin resistance in Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) collected from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. J Asia Pac Entomol. 2010; 13:175-82.

12. Wan-Norafikah O, Nazni WA, Lee HL, Chen CD, Wan-Norjuliana WM, Azahari AH, et al. Detection of permethrin resistance in Aedes albopictus Skuse collected from Titiwangsa Zone, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Proc ASEAN Congr Trop Med Parasitol; 2008 May 22-23; Bangkok, Thailand. 2008; 3: p. 69-77.

13. Division of Medical Entomology, IMR, Kuala Lumpur. Simple and Pictorial Key to Common Genera of Mosquito Adults. In: Abdullah AG, editor. Medical Entomology III. IMR:Kuala Lumpur; 2000. p. 6-13.

14. Lee HL. Aedes ovitrap and larval survey in several suburban communities in Selangor, Malaysia. Mosq Borne Dis Bull. 1992; 9:9-15.

15. Ministry of Health Malaysia. Guidelines on the use of ovitrap for Aedes surveillance. (Unpublished data). 1997.

16. World Health Organization. Test procedure for insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria vectors, bio-efficacy and persistence of insecticides on treated surfaces. WHO/CDS/CPC/MAL/98.12. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.

17. Herath PRJ, Davidson G. Multiple resistance in Anopheles albimanus. Mosq News. 1981; 41:535-9.

18. Kumar S, Thomas A, Pillai MK. Involvement of mono-oxygenases as a major mechanism of deltamethrin-resistance in larvae of three species of mosquitoes. Indian J Exp Biol. 1991; 29:379-84.

19. World Health Organization. Instructions for determining the susceptibility or resistance of adult mosquitoes to organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. WHO/VBC/81.805. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1981.

20. Kasai S, Shono T, Komagata O, Tsuda Y, Kobayashi M, Motoki M, et al. Insecticide resistance in potential vector mosquitoes for West Nile Virus in Japan. J Med Entomol. 2007; 44:822-9.

21. Hardstone MC, Leichter CA, Scott JG. Multiplicative interaction between the two major mechanisms of permethrin resistance, kdr and cytochrome P450- monooxygenase detoxification, in mosquitoes. J Evol Biol. 2009; 22:416-23.

22. Brogdon WG, McAllister JC, Vulule J. Heme peroxidase activity measured in single mosquitoes identifies individuals expressing an elevated oxidase for insecticide resistance. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1997; 13:233-7.

23. Nazni WA, Kamaludin MY, Lee HL, T Rogayah TAR, Sa’diyah I. Oxidase activity in relation to insecticide resistance in vectors of public health importance. Trop Biomed. 2000; 17:69-79.

24. Abbott WS. A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol. 1925; 18:265-7.

25. Raymond R. Log-probit analysis basic programme of microcomputer. Cah Orstom Entomol Med Parasitol. 1985; 23:117-21.

26. Cochran DG. Chapter 8: Insecticide Resistance. In: Rust MK, Owens JM, Reierson DA, editors. Understanding and Controlling the German Cockroach, Oxford University Press Inc.:New York; 1995. p. 171-6.

27. Gill SS. Larvicidal activity of synthetic pyrethroids against Aedes albopictus (Skuse). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1977; 8:510-4.

28. Lee HL, Nor Asikin, Nazni WA, Sallehuddin S. Temporal variations of insecticide susceptibility status of field-collected Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 1998; 15:43-50.

29. Ping LT, Yatiman R, Gek LP. Susceptibility of adult field strains of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Singapore to pirimiphos-methyl and permethrin. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2001; 17:144-6.

30. Ponlawat A, Scott JG, Harrington LC. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Thailand. J Med Entomol. 2005; 42:821-5.

31. Liu H, Cupp EW, Micher KM, Guo A, Liu N. Insecticide resistance and cross-resistance in Alabama and Florida strains of Culex quinquefasciatus. J Med Entomol. 2004; 41:408-13.

32. Sames IV WJ, Bueno RJr, Hayes J, Olson JK. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas and Mexico. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1996; 12:487-90.

33. Romi R, Toma L, Severini F, Di Luca M. Susceptibility of Italian populations of Aedes albopictus to temephos and to other insecticides. J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2003; 19:419-23.

34. Sharma SN, Saxena VK, Lal S. Study on susceptibility status in aquatic and adult stages of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus against insecticides at international airports of south India. J Commun Dis. 2004; 36:177-81.

35. Jirakanjanakit N, Rongnoparut P, Saengtharatip S, Chareonviriyaphap T, Duchon S, Bellec C, Yoksan S. Insecticide susceptible / resistance status in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand during 2003 - 2005. J Econ Entomol. 2007; 100:545-50.

36. Malcolm CA. Current status of pyrethroid resistance in anophelines. Parasitol Today. 1988; 4:S13-15.

37. Oppenoorth FJ. Biochemical and genetic in insecticide resistance. In: Kerkut GA, Gilbert LI, editors. Comprehensive Insect Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology. Pergamon Press; 1985; 12: p. 731-773.

38. Georghiou GP. The Magnitude of Resistance Problem. In: Glass EH, editor. Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management. National Academy Press : Washington DC; 1986; p. 14-43.

39. Nelson DR, Koymans L, Kamataki T, Stegeman JJ, Feyereisen R, Waxman DJ, Waterman MR, Gotoh O, Coon MJ, Eastbrook RW, Gunsalus IC, Nebert DW. P450 superfamily: Update on new sequences, gene mapping, accession numbers and nomenclature. Pharmacogenetics. 1996; 6:1-42.

40. Roberts DR, Andre RG. Insecticide resistant issues in vectors. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994; 50(Supplement): 21-34.

41. Feyereisen R. Insect P450 Enzymes. Annu Rev Entomol. 1999; 44:507-33.

42. Chareonviriyaphap T, Rongnoparut P, Chantarumporn P, Bangs MJ. Biochemical detection of pyrethroid resistance mechanism in Anopheles minimus in Thailand. J Vector Ecol. 2003; 28:108-16.

43. Hidayati H, Sofian-Azirun M, Nazni WA, Lee HL. Insecticide resistance development in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say), Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae against malathion, permethrin and temephos. Trop Biomed. 2005; 22: 45-52.

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.209
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0.243

CiteScore 2017: 0.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.162
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.173

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 144 139 6
PDF Downloads 80 76 2