Effect of xanthoxylin on melanin content and melanogenic protein expression in B16F10 melanoma

Wanmai Moleephan 1 , Supeecha Wittayalertpanya 2 , Nijsiri Ruangrungsi 3  and Wacharee Limpanasithikul 4
  • 1 Interdepartmental Program of Pharmacology, Graduate School, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
  • 2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
  • 3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
  • 4 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Abstract

Background: Reduced production of melanin and decreased or absence of melanocytes leads to various hypopigmentation disorders. Melanin synthesis is regulated by melanogenic proteins such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP -2), as well as their transcription factors.

Objectives: This study elucidated the effects of xanthoxylin on melanin content, dendriticity, melanogenic protein expression and its signal transduction pathways in mouse B16F10 melanoma cells (B16F10 cells).

Methods: Melanin production of B16F10 cells was measured by using a melanin content assay. The effect of xanthoxylin on the dendriticity of B16F10 cells was determined by a melanocyte dendricity assay. RT-PCR was used to investigate the effects of xanthoxylin on the melanogenic protein expression.

Results: We found that xanthoxylin increased melanin production, number of dendrites, tyrosinase, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) expression in cultured B16F10 cells. In addition, PKA and PKC inhibitor decreased melanin production, tyrosinase, and MITF expression in xanthoxylin-treated cells. However, xanthoxylin did not inhibit TRP-1 and TRP-2 expression.

Conclusion: These results indicated that xanthoxylin induces melanogenesis mainly via cAMP-mediated PKA activation. Other signaling pathways may also play a role in xanthoxylin-induced melanogenesis.

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