Mediastinal teratoma in a neonate with acute respiratory failure

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Background: While teratomas account for the leading cause of germ cell tumors, the mediastinal teratomas represent one of the infrequent types of congenital germ cell tumors. Neonates with large mediastinal teratomas generally show severe respiratory distress, and the immediate surgical treatment is needed to alleviate their problems.

Objectives: Report clinical symptoms, diagnostic procedures, treatment option, and outcomes after the treatment for a neonate with a large mediastinal teratoma.

Methods: A 2-day-old female infant presented with acute respiratory failure diagnosed as mediastinal teratoma. It was followed with surgical treatment. The removed tissues were examined pathologically.

Results: The girl suffered an acute respiratory failure two days after birth. The chest radiography, echocardiography, and chest computerized tomography results showed the considerable size of the mediastinal teratoma. A median sternotomy was performed on the third day of infant life to remove the tumor without rupturing the capsule. Pathological diagnosis was germ cell tumor. Clinical follow-ups reported no complication.

Conclusion: The successful management of a neonate with large mediastinal teratomas was presented. Immediate detection and proper treatment of the large mediastinal teratoma in a neonate was most important to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the infant.

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