Shoot Multiplication and in Vitro Rooting of Carlina onopordifolia Basser
This paper is the first published report describing micropropagation of Carlina onopordifolia, using shoot tip and hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from 10-day-old seedlings and transferred to proliferation medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 1.0 or 3.0 mg l-1), kinetin (Kn; 1.0 or 3.0 mg l-1) or zeatin (ZEA; 1.0 or 3.0 mg l-1) in combination with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.1 mg l-1). The shoot tips were significantly better than hypocotyls as initial material for shoot regeneration. For shoot multiplication, MS medium supplemented with BA proved superior to the other cytokinins tested. Medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l-1 BA gave the highest shoot propagation frequency (66.9%) and number of shoots per explant (2.5). Single shoots were separated from each other and rooted on MS supplemented with IBA for the whole period of culture, with longor short-pulse IBA application. The highest rooting frequency (84.8%) and root number (18.8) were for shortpulse (1 min) 1000 mg l-1 IBA solution. The higher IBA concentration stimulated callus formation and the development of short roots. The shoots were transferred to MS medium without growth regulators. Survival was highest (54.4%) for the plants from the short-pulse 100 mg l-1 IBA treatment. After 8 weeks of acclimatization the plantlets were removed to field conditions and grew normally.
Baskaran P, and Jayabalan N. 2005. An efficient micropropagation system for Eclipa alba - a valuable medicinal herb. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant 41: 532-539.
Chakrabarty D, and Datta SK. 2008. Micropropagation of gerbera: lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities during acclimatization process. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 30: 325-331.
Conde P, Sousa A, Costa A, and Santos C. 2008. A protocol for Ulmus minor Mill. micropropagation and acclimatization. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 92: 113-119.
Dhaka N, and Kothari SL. 2005. Micropropagation of Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk - an important medicinal plant. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant 41: 658-661.
Faisal M, and Anis M. 2003. Rapid mass propagation of Tylophora indica Merrill via leaf callus culture. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 75: 125-129.
Feyissa T, Welander M, and Negash L. 2005. Micropropagation of Hagenia abyssinica: a multipurpose tree. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 80: 119-127.
Grubisić D, Savikin-Foduloviv K, Misic D, Giba Z, and Konjevic R. 2004. In vitro stem elongation of stemless carline thistle. Plant Growth Regulation 44: 65-69.
Hazarika BN. 2006. Morpho-physiological disorders in in vitro culture of plants. Scientia Horticulturae 108: 105-120.
Husain MK, Asis M, and Shahzad A. 2008. In vitro propagation of a multipurpose leguminous tree (Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) using nodal explants. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 30: 353-359
Joshi M, and Dhar U. 2003. In vitro propagation of Saussurea obvallata (DC.) Edgew. - an endangered ethnoreligious medicinal herb of Himalaya. Plant Cell Reports 21: 933-939.
Korach A, Juliani HR, Kapteyn J, and Simon JE. 2002. In vitro regeneration of Echinacea purpurea from leaf explants. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 69: 79-83.
Liu CZ, Murch SJ, Demerdash EL, and Saxena PK. 2003. Regeneration of the Egyptian medicinal plant Artemisia judaica L. Plant Cell Reports 21: 525-530.
Martin KP. 2003. Rapid in vitro multiplication and ex vitro rooting of Rotula aquatica Lour., a rare rhoeophytic woody medicinal plant. Plant Cell Reports 21: 415-420.
Murashige T, and Skoog F. 1962. A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 15: 437-497.
Orlikowska T, Nowak E, Marasek A, and Kucharska D. 1999. Effect of growth regulators and incubation period on in vitro regeneration of adventitious shoots from gerbera petioles. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 59: 95-102.
Poznańska Z, and Kaźmierczakowa R. 2001. Carlina onopordifolia Besser. In: Kaźmierczakowa R, and Zarzycki K [eds.], Polish Red Data Book of Plants, 381-382. Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow, Poland.
Romano A, Barros S, and Martins-Loução MA. 2002. Micropropagation of the Mediterranean tree Ceratonia siliqua. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 68: 35-31.
Ruzin SE. 1999. Plant Microtechnique and Microscopy. Cambridge. Oxford University Press.
Shiva Prakash N, Deepak P, and Neera BS. 1994. Regeneration of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) from cotyledonary node via multiple shoot formation. Plant Cell Reports 13: 623-627.
Siddique I, and Anis M. 2007. In vitro shoot multiplication and plantlet regeneration from nodal explants of Cassia angustifolia (Vahl.): a medicinal plant. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 29: 233-238.
Sudha CG, Krishnan PN, Pushpangadan P, and Seeni S. 2005. In vitro propagation of Decalepis arayalpathra, a critically endangered ethnomedicinal plant. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology - Plant 41: 648-654.
Sujata G, and Ranjitha Kumari BD. 2007. Effect of phytohormones on micropropagation of Artemisia vulgaris L. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 29: 189-195.
Trejgell A, Dąbrowska G, and Tretyn A. 2009. In vitro regeneration of Carlina acaulis subsp. simplex from seedling explants. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 31: 445-453.
Trejgell A, Szczepanek D, and Tretyn A. 2010. In vitro propagation of Leontopodium alpinum L. from different seedling explants. Propagation of Ornamental Plant 10: 81-87.
Xu J, Wang Y, Zhang Y, and Chai T. 2008. Rapid in vitro multiplication and ex vitro rooting of Malus zumi (Matsumura) Rehd. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 30: 129-132.
Zarzycki K, and Szeląg Z. 2006. Red list of the vascular plants in Poland. In: Mirek Z, Zarzycki K, Wojewoda W, Szeląg Z [eds.], Red List of Plants and Fungi in Poland, 9-20. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow.